The research is divided into two broad categories’ which are qualitative research and quantitative research.


Approaches to Research

Approaches to research are as follow:

  1. Quantitative research
  2. Quantitative research
  3. Mix methods research
  4. Quantitative research


a)      In Quantitative research the data is collected and converted in numerical form. The data is analysed in statistical form.

b)      In Quantitative research researchers use close ended questionnaires to collect data.

c)      It is also used to find out relationship between variables.

d)      The research has more than two hypotheses. 

e)      The researchers use various instruments and materials to collect data. For example, papers, questionnaires, computer-based tests, etc.

f)       Various softwares are used for data analysis for example spss and excel etc.

g)      Maintaining Objectivity is very important challenge in quantitative research.

h)      They researcher critically examines data to reduce any possible bias.

i)       The Researchers works hard to stay on the point and measure what he claimed to measure.

j)       Quantitative research is a top down approach.

Types of Quantitative research are as follow:


  1. Experimental research
  2. Quasi-experimental research
  3. Ex-post Facto research
  4. Survey research
  5. Causal comparative research
  6. Co-relational research


Qualitative research is used to find out nature of reality. It is used to know about human behavior and experience, emotions and effects of variables. Researchers are interested in gaining detailed information. The collected information can be generalized to other larger groups. This is an inductive bottom-up approach to study. in this research Data is collected through observation and interaction with the participants for e.g. through in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions. The researcher collects data several times rather than once. The participants have freedom to answer responses in detailed interviews. The researcher selects smaller number of participants to collect data. because in-depth interviews consume time and to generalize data from a large number of participants is difficult.

Types of Qualitative research are as follow:

  1. Ethnography
  2. Case study
  3. Historical Research
  4. Phenomenology studies
  5. Grounded theory
  6. Action Research
  7. Mixed methods research


Mix methods research involves using the both qualitative and quantitative methods simultaneously. Sometimes, first one approach is used and then the other is used, for example, a qualitative study involving questionnaire-based data and in-depth interviews. First the questionnaire is filled by respondents and then the in-depth interviews were conducted to see the validity of results.