Tools of research

How to collect data for research?

Before describing the tools of research. It is necessary to know how researchers collect data for research? The researchers collet data for research with the help of tools of research.


 Observation is another way to collect data. There are two types of observation. Participant observation and non-participant observation. This can be done with the acknowledgement of observer or without acknowledgement of observer. When researcher becomes the part of setting, It is called participant observation. When researcher did not become the part of setting. It is called non-participant observation. You may decide how to collect data. observation can be continuous, or time bound depending on your research.

Observational Checklists
Observational Checklists can be used to observe person’s behavior or evaluation of a performance. The researcher develops Observational Checklists according to the topic of research. For example, If the researcher is doing research on behavior of autistic children’s researcher will record the frequency of behavior and time duration of certain behavior etc.

In-Depth Interviews are commonly used tool in quantitative studies. It includes both individual interviews as well as group interviews and focus groups. For In depth interviews researcher visits the sample individuals well prepared. The participants have freedom to answer responses in depth interviews. The researcher selects smaller number of participants to collect data. Because in-depth interviews consume time and to generalize data from large number of participants is difficult. The data can be recorded with the permission of sample with the help of audio recorder or video recorders. In case the researcher did not allow researcher to record data than the researcher can only make written notes on paper. There are two types of interviews:

Semi structured interviews

 Semi structured interviews, in semi structured interviews the interviewer develops a guide to the topics that he or she wants to cover in the interview, However, the interviewer can also ask other questions freely from the interviewee, It is a good tool for acquisition of detailed information .It is not suitable for gaining information from large numbers of sample.

Structured interviews

Structured interviews, in structured interviews the interviewer develops a complete questionnaire of questions that researcher wants to cover in the interview, and the interviewer cannot ask other questions from the interviewee, It is also a good tools for acquisition of detailed information. It saves time. However, it is not suitable for gaining information from large numbers of sample.

Case Studies
Case study helps the researcher to collect an in-depth information about people, experience. Case studies generally use a mix method approach for data collection. The use of quantitative data and qualitative data depends on the researchers plan to study deeply into the variables of research.


Surveys or Questionnaires
Surveys or questionnaires are instruments used for collecting quantitative data. standardized of questionnaire is necessary to use questionnaire in research. You can help a research assistant for data collection from institutions. You can also create and share your questionnaires on online sites that allows customers to create online surveys for research to collect data from online users.