Reactive and Non-Reactive Research

Research,Reactive and Non-Reactive Research,

1- Non-reactive Research

In non-reactive research People who are being studied are not aware of fact that they are being studied by researcher. Examples of non-reactive researches are Quantitative and observational studies.

2- Reactive Research

In reactive research People knows they are being studied by researcher. Examples of reactive researches are Experiments and surveys.

1.1-            Why Researchers use Non-Reactive Research

Researchers use non-reactive research to collect accurate and original data that is non-suspicious in all manners. Through non-reactive research approach researcher can record or observe original behavior or actions of people. Researcher did not disturb people while collecting data.

1.2-            Type of Non-Reactive Research “Content Analysis”

Content Analysis is widely used for gathering and analyzing the text. content means all written on pictorial data about a researchable thing for example; words, meanings, images, signs, ideas, themes, or anything that tells about the problem or thing.

1.3-            Source of information for content analysis

Sources of content analysis includes all type of documents for example Personal, Non-personal, Mass media, Books, publications, journals, literatures, announcements, billboards, ads, snapshots, articles etc. Researcher codes the data carefully, makes themes, sub themes and headings to analyses the content.

Content analysis is non-reactive research method. In content analysis no interaction occurs between the researcher and the text writer. Researcher did not disturb the sample.

1.4-            How to do content analysis?

Researchers makes Question about problem. Studies the variables on which he is going to do analysis. Researcher decides about Sampling procedure and selects sample from population. Here Population and sample means words, sentences, paragraphs in documents researchers selects the sample randomly.

Researcher Observes the tone of written text either it was positive or negative. Where it leads, did he had collected enough amount of data. Is it worthwhile. Is it seems original or fake. Researcher codes the data makes categories and gives labels to each category. Checks how many times the data is related to one category. Which category have more data.  Checks the reliability and the validity of data.

How to conduct Interviews?

Usually researcher conducts the interviews. If researcher did not conduct interviews he can take help from a field worker.

Who is field worker?

A field worker is a person who collects data in the field for researcher. A researcher can take help of field worker for conducting telephonic interviews, for an observation of a group of people, for administration of questionnaires for data collection and for one on one interviews of participants.

Who are Interviewers?

Interviewers are people hired by the researcher for data collection. The researcher can contact any Interviewing Service for conducting interviews. Theses service providers have individuals who specializes in gathering data, edit questionnaires and analyzing the collected data.

Responsibilities of Interviewer:

He should take permission from participants first. He must know how to introduce himself. He should have ability to convince the participant. If he is taking a telephonic interview he should know how to talk to participants.

He should do a rehearsal before conducting interviews to learn how to ask the questions from respondents. He should know which questions are important and necessary to be answered. He should repeat questions if the respondents feel difficulty in understanding them. He should not record interviews without respondent’s permission. If there are closed ended questions interviewer, make it sure all questions are answered by respondent. Interviewer should not manipulate the answers by summarizing and paraphrasing them. The data should present original ideas of respondents. Researcher should show gratitude to the participants at the end of interviews.

1- Inductive Approach to Research

Researchers use inductive approach to research in order to develop a new theory. Deductive approach to research always proceeds and starts from a question. It always explores a new idea and investigates previously researched theory from a different perception. It is widely used in qualitative research. Glaser and Strauss grounded theory is an example of inductive approach. The starts theory building process with an open mind without any preexisting belief and thought and develops a new theory based on study results.

2- Deductive Approach to Research

Researchers use deductive approach to research in order to test a theory. Deductive approach to research always have a hypothesis. Its focus is always on a cause. It is widely used in quantitative research.

3- Suggested Readings

1.      Feeney, A., & Heit, E. (Eds.). (2007). Inductive reasoning: Experimental, developmental, and computational approaches. Cambridge University Press.

2.      Hodkinson, P. (2008). Grounded theory and inductive research.

3.      Hyde, K. F. (2000). Recognizing deductive processes in qualitative research. Qualitative market research: An international journal, 3(2), 82-90.

4.      Soiferman, L. K. (2010). Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches. Online Submission.